Nutrition Basic

Food and health are the subjects of nutrition. Dietetics studies our body’s relationship with food and how it nourishes our bodies as well as how our bodies use food as fuel or, in other words, how our bodies use food for growth, reproduction, and health maintenance.

Diet is the process of taking in foods, nutrients, and other substances they contain, and of understanding their actions within the body, including ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. The two main types of nutrition is autotrophic and heterotrophic.

Your diet has a profound impact not only on your future health but also on how you feel right now. Getting a poor diet today can leave you feeling tired, sick, and weak. Studies have confirmed, good nutrition:

  • Can help build immunity to help fight short-term infections.
  • Can protect from chronic diseases in the future.
  • Can help you maintain a healthy weight to feel better overall.
  • Can improve your mood and enhance your mental outlook.
  • Can improve memory.
  • Can strengthen bones and muscles.


Diversity is the key to balanced eating. Not only eating from a variety of food groups but also a variety of food within those food groups. Each food group provides important and vital macro and micro-nutrients that are essential for growth, development, and body function.

Women should receive antenatal care from health facilities while pregnant. Good nutrition during pregnancy and appropriate health-seeking behavior during pregnancy will positively impact both the mother and the child. They should receive iron supplementation because of increased iron needs during pregnancy A pregnant or breastfeeding woman needs to eat enough food to supply the extra energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals needed by the growing fetus or baby during breastfeeding. Her meals must be balanced.

Undernutrition: Undernutrition is a deficiency of food energy or nutrients, which leads to nutrient deficiencies. It is caused by inadequate intake or poor absorption of nutrients in the body. Acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition, stunting, wasting, and underweight and micronutrient deficiencies occur because of undernutrition, and they can have serious consequences on the development and health of infants and young children. Undernutrition is one of the leading causes of mortality for young children across the globe and is often caused by an interaction between inadequate dietary intake and frequent illness.

Overnutrition: Overnutrition is a condition caused by abnormal or excess fat accumulation in the body that may lead to health problems and reduced life expectancy. Overnutrition starts as overweight and if left uncontrolled may progress to obesity. With its emphasis on nutrient-dense foods and beverages—core elements that make up a healthy dietary pattern—the Dietary Guidelines encourage the consumption of foods that provide vitamins, minerals, and other health-promoting components. These foods generally fall into the following categories:

  • Vegetables of all types
  • Fruits, especially whole fruit
  • Grains, at least half of which are whole-grain
  • Dairy, including fat-free or low-fat products and soy products as alternatives
  • Protein foods, including lean meats, poultry, eggs, seafood, beans, peas, lentils, and nuts
  • Oils, including vegetable oils and oils in food, such as seafood and nuts


The Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods is a valuable tool for people to use to help make more informed decisions about the nutritional content of foods they plan to purchase and eat. The Nutrition Facts label clearly identifies the number of calories and amount of added sugars, saturated fats, dietary fiber, sodium, and other nutrients and food components in each serving of food.

Health is defined as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The disease affects all three aspects of the health triangle. Good nutrition provides a mechanism to promote health and prevent disease. 

Because genetics play a large role in defining your health it is a good idea to take the time to learn some of the diseases and conditions that may affect you. To do this, you need to record your family’s medical history. Food also has psychological, cultural, and religious significance, so your personal choices of food affect your body, mind, and soul. The social implications of food have a great deal to do with what people eat, as well as how and when. Special events in individual lives—from birthdays to funerals—are commemorated with equally special foods. Being aware of these forces can help people make healthier food choices—and still honor the traditions and ties they hold dear.

The Six Basic Nutrients

  • Water. Water makes up 45-75% of our bodies and is important for good health.
  • Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates (carbs for short) are the main sources of energy in our body.
  • Protein. Protein is made of amino acids, which are the building blocks of our tissues.
  • Fat.
  • Vitamins.
  • Minerals.


Food Safety: Food Safety is the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and foodborne illnesses. Food safety is all the circumstances and actions necessary to ensure the safety of food at all levels. This refers to the practices and conditions that prevent contamination and food-borne illnesses. Food safety is a necessity for everyone. Consumers have high expectations that their food is safe; therefore food handler have a responsibility to safeguard the health of consumers. We know that food hazards have the potential to cause serious damage to the body. Many sicknesses transmitted by foods can lead to adverse health effects, such as chronic conditions, injuries, and debilities. Managing food safety and hygiene states that we are all at some extent dependent on others to ensure that the food we eat does not harm us.

In businesses, food safety and hygiene are of utmost importance as it helps to guard the health of consumers from food-borne illnesses and food poisoning. Sickness occurs when food becomes contaminated by bacteria, viruses, and other germs, making those people unwell who consume the contaminated food. Food safety is important to push the good health of the population. Also, safe food can contribute to food and nutritional security, human health, and therefore the progress of the country, leading to the sustainable development of countries

Constituents of Good Health

Good physical health, you will have a longer life span.

Mental health refers to the psychological and emotional well-being of a person. The mental health of a person impacts their feelings and way of handling situations. We must maintain our mental health by being positive and meditating.

Spiritual health creates a balance between physical, psychological and social aspects of human life. The general definition of spiritual wellness is the search for your life & meaning and purpose, as well as striving for consistency in your values and your actions. A spiritually healthy person has a clear purpose in life and is able to reflect on the meaning of events.

Subsequently, social health and cognitive
health are equally important for the overall well-being of a person. A
person can maintain their social health when they effectively
communicate well with others.